Which change of state is shown in the model? condensation-Deposition-Boiling-Freezing

Which change of state is shown in the model?

Condensation

Deposition

Boiling

Freezing

The answer depends on the particular model you are analyzing but this master model can be used to explain several processes in the interconversion of matter excepts the change from liquid to gas or gas to liquid.

1= Freezing 2=sublimation 3=melting 4=Deposition

I believe there is a need to define the processes to better understand these models or the changes displayed in these models.

These options above all emphasize the changes that matter undergoes from one form to another. To fully determine which state change is shown in the model, we need to properly consider and understand the specific conditions and characteristics depicted. Each process involves distinct energy exchanges and molecular arrangements, essential for identifying the correct phase transition.

Freezing

During freezing, a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point. This process involves a reduction in the kinetic energy of molecules, allowing intermolecular forces to bind them into a structured, solid form.

Kinetic molecular theory of freezing of liquid

This can be explained with the help of the kinetic theory of matter for a better understanding of the process. As we have mentioned earlier concerning the concept of kinetic theory, molecules of a liquid are in constant motion, colliding with each other and the walls of the container.

As the temperature decreases, the vibrations of the molecules decrease as they lose energy. In the liquid state, intermolecular forces (e.g., hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces) are present but not strong enough to keep the molecules in fixed positions. As the temperature decreases, the kinetic energy of the molecules decreases, and the intermolecular forces become more effective in binding the molecules together

Examples of freezing

• Freezing of water to Ice: Freezing is turning liquids into solids. The most common example is freezing water to make ice cubes. Ice cream freezing is another example. Freezing occurs at a specific temperature which is usually lo like at 0°C for water
• Freezing of foods for Preservation: Freezing foods like vegetables, meats, and prepared meals help preserve them for longer periods. For example, freezing fruits like strawberries or vegetables like peas.
• Applications of freeze-Drying: This process involves freezing a substance and then reducing the surrounding pressure to allow the frozen water in the substance to sublimate directly from the solid phase to the gas phase. It is used for preserving perishable materials

Condensation

Condensation is the change of state of matter from gas or vapor to liquid. This transformation typically occurs when the gas is cooled to a temperature below its dew point or when it comes into contact with a surface that is cooler than the temperature of the gas. It is important to mention that condensation involves the gaseous phase or state losing energy and gradually turning to a liquid state.

Examples of condensation

There are various examples of condensation in nature. To highlight a few examples, I will only pick these

The formation of Dew at night on grass or flowers: During the night, the temperature decreases which leads or makes the water vapor in the air to condense into tiny droplets on the cooler surface of grass.

Formation of Fog: When a warm humid air substance comes in contact with cold window glass, this leads to condensation as can be seen on the glass, making it foggy.

Formation of Water Droplets on a Cold Drink: When you take a cold drink out of the refrigerator, the warm air surrounding the glass or can cools down, leading to condensation and the formation of water droplets on the outside. This is often especially whem I leave a cold drink outside the fridge for some time.

The Cloud Formation: Condensation is equally seen when  when moist, warm air rises and cools in the upper atmosphere, causing the water vapor to condense into tiny water droplets or ice crystals.

Deposition

Deposition is the change of state of matter from the gaseous state to the solid state. This is otherwise called de-sublimation. Deposition occurs when matter changes directly from a gas to a solid without passing through the liquid state or phase. It is a phase transition that involves the loss of heat energy from gaseous matter. Deposition occurs under certain conditions of temperature and pressure where the gas phase loses enough energy to become a solid directly.

Examples of deposition

The Frost Formation : Frost formation is a typical example of deposition in nature. When humid air comes into contact with a very cold surface, water vapor in the air directly deposits as ice crystals. This commonly occurs on car windows, grass, and leaves on cold mornings.

Boiling

Boiling is the change of state from a liquid state to a gaseous state as matter gains energy.

The boiling process is a physical process in which a substance changes its state from a liquid to a gas by absorption of heat energy.  Boiling occurs at a specific temperature called the boiling point and the change occurs when the substance is heated to its boiling point. Boiling point occurs when the vapor pressure equals the external pressure exerted on the liquid. Here’s a detailed explanation of the boiling process.

Kinetic molecular theory of boiling of liquid

This can be explained with the help of the kinetic theory of matter for a better understanding of the process. From the concept of kinetic theory, molecules of a liquid are in constant motion, colliding with each other and the walls of the container.

As the temperature increases, the vibrations of the molecules increase as they gain more energy to vibrate and thus change to vapor. The temperature of the liquid is a measure of the average kinetic energy of its molecules. As the liquid is heated, its temperature rises, increasing the average kinetic energy of the molecules.

Examples of Boiling

The boiling of water is a typical example of the boiling phenomenon, and it could be boiling of water for tea or cooking. Whatever the case water is turned into vapour.