Common Definitions in Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry
Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry guide has a lot of specifics commonly used in Cambridge Chemistry.
The terms used in Cambridge Chemistry have proper definitions. These definitions are commonly used in Cambridge IGCSE Chemsitry.
1. Define the term proton number: The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
2. Define the term acid: A proton donor
2. Define the termbase: A proton acceptor
3. In terms of proton transfer, explain what is meant by the term weak base: A proton acceptor that does not accept readily
4. Explain the term equilibrium: A reversible reaction in which the rate of forward reaction equals the rate backward reaction and the concentrations of the reactants and product remain constant with time.
5. Explain what is meant by the term fossil fuel: A substance that burns to release energy that is formed over a long time from organic material
6. Define the term isotope. atom(s) of the same element(same protons) with different number of neutrons;
7. What is ionic bonding: The attraction between oppositely charged ions formed by transfer of electrons
8. When is an unsaturated hydrocarbon? A compound containing a double or triple bond
9. What is meant by the term saturated compound? A saturated compound is a compound containing only a single covalent bond
10. What is meant by the term saturated solution? A solution that will not dissolve any more solute at that temperature
11. What is meant by the term catalyst? A substance that speeds up a reaction/increases rate but remains unchanged (chemically) at the end
12. Define the term electrolysis: This is the breakdown of an ionic compound when molten or in an aqueous solution; by the passage of electricity/electric current.
13. What is a reversible reaction? A reversible reaction is a reaction that has both forward and backward reactions.
A reaction that can occur in both ways to form a product.
14. What is a homologous series? A family of organic compounds with similar chemical properties
15 Define the meaning of the term catalyst? A substance that speeds up (increases) the rate of a reaction but remains chemically unchanged at the end.
16. Define term addition reaction? A reaction of two compounds to form a single product
17. What is meant by the term functional group? An atom or group of atoms determines the chemical property of a homologous series.
18. Define ionic bond: An attraction between oppositely charged ions formed by transfer of electrons
19. What are isomers? Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but the different structural formula
20. State the meaning of the term:
weak: ionizes partially
Acid: donates proton/produces hydrogen ion
21. Define proton number/atomic number: number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
22. Define nucleon/mass number: number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
23. Define the term element: A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units by any chemical process
25. Define the terms:
Addition polymerization: a combination of monomers to produce a single product condensation polymerization: a combination of monomers to produce a polymer and eliminate water
26. Define the term molecule: A combination of atoms that can exist alone and still retain the chemical properties
27. What is meant by the term ionic lattice? A structure made of positive and negative ions arranged in a regular pattern
28. Define the term electrolyte: An ionic compound that conducts electricity in molten or aqueous form by the movement of ions and becomes decomposed.
29. What is a weak acid? An acid that ionizes partially in water
30. What is a strong acid? An acid that ionizes completely in water